Seal, Anil, “Imperialism and Nationalism in India”, Modern Asian Studies, 1973 vol. 7 iss. 3 pg. 321 ff.** Conclusion.

Note – this is an important essay on methodology. The author concludes

Imperialism built a system which interlocked its rule in locality, province and nation; nationalism emerged as a matching structure of politics. The study of local situations, the com­ponents of these larger wholes, cannot by itself identify a bedrock reality. The Raj had smashed the autonomy of localities; the historian of British rule cannot put it together again. Indian politics have to be studied at each and every level; none of them can be a complete field of study on its own. Each of them reveals only that part of social action which did not depend upon interconnection. As that part became caught up by the linking forces of Indian history, it steadily...shrank.

In no colonial situation can government's part be ignored. We have suggested that much of the crucial work of connecting one level with another came from its impulses. This hypothesis can explain many of the problems of linkage.”