Hume, John Chandler Jr., Medicine in the Punjab, 1848-1911: ethnicity and professionalisation in the control of an occupation. , Ph.D. thesis, Duke University, 1977. Brief summary.

 “Punjab medical administrators, all of whom were British members of the Indian Medical Service, gained control of the occupation of medicine in the province between 1849 and 1911. Medical administrators legitimized efforts to exclude or control other groups in the occupation of medicine through the use of arguments based on ethnicity and professionalisation. `The British Medical administrators curbed the efforts of the local medical groups to gain a share in the medical service of the  province on the grounds that outside groups such as Bengali medical practitioners were not suited to the Punjab environment. Similarly they rejected the services of the indigenous medical practitioners such as Hakims, labeling it as “unscientific.” This study outlines the efforts of the Indian Medical Service officers to retain control of the senior medical administrative positions in Punjab.” The abstract.