Tomlinson, B. R., - “WRITING HISTORY SIDEWAYS: LESSONS FOR INDIAN ECONOMIC HISTORIANS FROM MEIJI JAPAN”. Modern Asian Studies [Great Britain] 1985 19(3): 669-698. ISSN: 0026-749X. Summary conclusion.

Note – the author concludes-

‘The results of our comparative exercise suggest that questions concerning the distribution and management of the surplus may be more important than questions concerning the creation of that surplus alone in explaining the stunted transformation of the Indian economy. The lack of integrating institutions can be identified as an important factor in its own right, and this should stimulate us to turn our attention to studying the histories of major firms in India as a way of examining the larger questions about economic development from a fresh perspective…. Such an analysis will perform a major service in helping economic historians to set aside the seductive over-simplifications that India is poor because she was always poor, or because she has been robbed; and that implicit comparisons with Meiji Japan can demonstrate either of these cases conclusively.’