Ver. 9.0

July 13, 2009

Words Significantly Different in Pronunciation in Pre-Exilic Hebrew[1]

By David Steinberg

David.Steinberg@houseofdavid.ca

Home page http://www.houseofdavid.ca/

Return to Table of Contents

See also http://www.houseofdavid.ca/problem5.pdf

 

1. Nouns (including adjectives) Based on Two Consonants

2. Nouns (including adjectives) Based on Three Consonants Masc. Sing Having One Vowel in Pre-exilic Hebrew

3. Nouns (including adjectives) Based on Three Consonants Two Short Vowels in Pre-Exilic Hebrew

4. Nouns (including adjectives) Based on Three Consonants Short First Long Second Vowel

5. Nouns (including adjectives) Based on Three Consonants Long First Short Second Vowel

6. Nouns (including adjectives) Based on Three Consonants Two Long Vowels

7. Nouns (including adjectives) based on Three Consonants the Second of which is Geminated having (in masc. sing.)Two Short Vowels

8. Prepositions, Negatives, Adverbs, etc.

 

1. Nouns (including adjectives) based on Two Consonants

(forms with long (doubled) second consonant see )

 

Forms

Tiberian

Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Pronunciation

 Nb. form in [square brackets] is a reconstructed pronunciation of the preceding /phonemic/ form

Meaning

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#qal

qal (Tiberian קָל)

אָב

/ˈʾabu/ > /ˈʾab/

father

 

 

אָח

/ˈʾa/

brother

 

 

דָּג

/ˈdag/

fish

 

 

דָּם

/ˈdam/

blood

 

 

וָו

/ˈwaw/

hook

 

 

יָד

/ˈyad/

hand

 

 

ֺשָד

/ˈad/

female breast

 

 

חָם

/ˈḥam/

husband's father

 

 

תָּו

/ˈtaw/

mark

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#qala

(feminine)

אָמָה

aˈmatu/ >> /ʾaˈ/

female servant, slave-wife

 

 

שָֺפָה

/śaˈ/

lip, language

 

 

ֺשָנָה

/aˈ/

year

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms#qil

qil (Tiberian קֵל)

אֶל

ilu/ > /ˈʾil/

il] + or [ʾẹl] -

god of

 

 

בֶּן בִּן

/bin/

[bin] + or [bẹn] -

son of

 

 

בַּת (f.)

/ˈbint/ > /ˈbitt/ > /ˈbat/

daughter

 

 

לֵץ

/ˈliṣ/

liṣ] + or [ʾlẹṣ]-

mocker

 

 

עֵד

/ˈcid/

[ˈcid] + or [ˈcẹd] -

witness

 

 

עֵץ

/ˈciṣ/

ciṣ] + or [ʾcẹṣ] -

tree

 

 

רֵעַ

/ˈric/

ric] + or [ʾrẹc] -

companion

 

 

ֺשֵם

/ˈim/

im] + or [ʾẹm] -

name

 

 

ֺשֵת

/ˈit/

it] + or [ʾẹt] -

base, foundation

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#qila

(feminine)

גֶּשֶׁת

/ˈgiatu/ > /ˈgitu/ >

/ˈgit/

[ˈgit] or [ˈgiәt]

approaching (inf. cstr. qal of נגשׁ)

 

 

דֵּעָה

/diˈcatu/ > > /diˈcā/

[diˈcā] +or [dẹˈcā] -

knowledge (qal verbal noun ידע)

 

 

דַּעַת

/ˈdicatu/ > /ˈdictu/ >

/ˈdict/

[ˈdi\ẹct] or [ˈdi\ẹcәt]

knowledge (inf. cstr. qal of ידע)

 

 

זֵעָה

/ziˈca/

[ziˈca] + or [zẹˈca] -

sweat (qal verbal noun יזע)

 

 

חֵמָה

/ḥiˈ/

[ḥiˈ] + or [ḥẹˈ] -

heat, anger

 

 

טַעַת

/ˈact/

[ˈact] or [ˈṭacәt]

planting (inf. cstr. qal of נטע )

 

 

לֵדָה

/ˈlidatu/ > /liˈdatu/

> /liˈ/

[liˈ] + or [lˈ] -

giving birth (qal verbal noun ילד)

 

 

לֶדֶת

/ˈlidatu/ >/ˈlidtu/

> /ˈlidt/

[ˈlidt] or [ˈlidәt]

giving birth (inf. cstr. qal of ילד)

 

 

לֶכֶת

/ˈlikt/

[ˈlikt] or [ˈlikәt]

going (inf. cstr. qal of הלך)

 

 

מֵאָה

/miˈʾā/

[miˈʾā] + or [mẹˈʾā] -

hundred

 

 

סַעַת

/ˈsact/

[ˈsact] or [ˈsacәt]

breaking camp, travelling (inf. cstr. qal of נסע)

 

 

עֵדָה

/ciˈ/

[ciˈ] + or [ceˈ] -

community

 

 

עֵצָה

/ciˈṣā/

[ciˈṣā] + or [cˈṣā] -

plan

 

 

פֵּאָה

/piˈʾā/

[piˈʾā] + or [pẹˈʾā] -

edge

 

 

צֵאת

/ˈṣiʾt/ (BH?) > /ˈṣīt/ (BH?)

going out (inf. cstr. qal of יצא)

 

 

קֶֺשֶת

/ˈqit/

[ˈqit] or [ˈqiәt]

bow

 

 

רֶדֶת

/ˈridt/

[ˈridt] or [ˈridәt]

going down (inf. cstr. qal of ירד)

 

 

שֶׁבֶת

/ˈibt/

[ˈibt] or [ˈibәt]

sitting (inf. cstr. qal of ישׁב)

 

 

שֵׁנׇה

/iˈ/

[iˈ] + or [ˈ] -

sleep (qal verbal noun ישׁן)

 

 

תֵּבָה

/tiˈ/

[tiˈ] + or [tẹˈ] -

ark

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#qul

qul

תּוֺר

/ˈtur/

[ˈtur] + or [ˈtor] -

dove

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#qall

qall (list)

חַי

/ˈḥayy/

alive

 

(feminine)

חַיָּה

/ḥayˈ/

wild animal

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#qill

qill (list)

אֵם

/ˈimm/

[ˈim] + or [ˈẹm] -

mother

 

(feminine)

פִּנָּה

/pinˈ/

corner

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms forms.htm#qull

qull (list)

חֹק

/ˈḥuqq/

[ˈḥuq] + or [ˈḥoq] -

law

 

(feminine)

חֻקָּה

/ḥuqˈ/

law, decree

+ more likely pronunciation

- less likely pronunciation

 

2. Nouns (including adjectives) based on Three Consonants having (in masc. sing.)

One Vowel in Pre-exilic Hebrew

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#tab2_3let

 

Forms

Tiberian

Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Biblical Hebrew (BH) Pronunciation

 Nb. form in [square brackets] is a reconstructed pronunciation of the preceding /phonemic/ form

Meaning

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#qatl

qatl

מֶלֶךְ ([ˈmęlęk])

/ˈmalku/ > /ˈmalk/

[ˈmalk] or [ˈmalәk]

king

 

ע״ן

בַּת ([ˈbat])

/*ˈbint/ > */ˈbitt/

(shift */ˈbitt/ > /ˈbatt/ due to Philippi's law)

daughter

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#ayin_gutteral

ayin-gutteral roots

לַהַב ([ˈlahab])

/ˈlahbu/ > /ˈlahb/

[ˈlahb] or [ˈlahәb]

flame

 

 

לֶחֶם ([ˈlęḥęm])

/ˈlaḥm/

[ˈlaḥm] or [ˈlaḥәm]

bread

 

 

נַחַל

/ˈnaḫl/

[ˈnaḫl] or [ˈnaḫәl]

wadi

 

 

נַעַל

/ˈnacl/

[ˈnacl] or [ˈnacәl]

shoe

 

 

נַעַר

/ˈnacr/

[ˈnacr] or [ˈnacәr]

youth (noun)

 

 

פַּחַד

/ˈpaḫd/

[ˈpaḫd] or [ˈpaḫәd]

trembling

 

 

רֶחֶם

/ˈraḥm/

[ˈraḥm] or [ˈraḥәm]

womb

 

 

ֺשַעַר

/ˈθaġru/ >/ˈaġr/

[ˈaġr] or [ˈaġәr]

gate

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#l_aleph

ל״א roots

גֶּבֶא ([gębę])

/ˈgabʾ/

[ˈgabʾ] or [ˈgabәʾ]

pond

 

 

טֶנֶא

ˈanʾ

[ˈanʾ] or [ˈṭanәʾ] or

[ˈęnęː]

vase

 

 

פֶּרֶא

/ˈparʾ/

[ˈparʾ] or [ˈparәʾ] or

[ˈręː]

wild ass

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#l_y

ל״י roots[2]

גְּדִי ([gәˈdi])

/ˈgadyu/ > /ˈgady/ (BH?) > ga/ (BH?)

kid

 

 

כְּלִי ([kәˈli]) or

כֶּלִי ([ˈkęli])

/ˈkalyu/ > /ˈkaly/ (BH?) > /ˈkalī/ (BH?)

tool, vessel

 

 

פֶּתִי

/ˈpatyu/ > /ˈpaty/ (BH?) > /ˈpa/ (BH?)

nave young man

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#ayin_waw

ע״ו roots (consonantal ו )

אָוֶן (construct אוֺן)

/ˈʾawn/

[ˈʾawn]

(construct

wn])

(Jerusalem)

[ˈʾōn] (abs. and constr.)

(Samaria)

wickedness

 

 

מָוֶת (construct מָוֺת)

/ˈmawt/

[ˈmawt]

(construct [mwt])

(Jerusalem)

[ˈmōt] (abs. and constr.)

(Samaria)

death

 

 

עָוֶל

/ˈcawl/

[ˈcawl] (construct

[cwl]

(Jerusalem)

[ˈcōl]

(Samaria)

injustice

 

(feminine)

עַוְלָה

/cawˈ/

 

injustice

 

 

תָּוֶךְ

/ˈtawk/

[ˈtawk]

(construct [ˈtwk])

(Jerusalem)

[ˈtōk]

(Samaria)

midst

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/forms.htm#ayin_yod

ע״י roots (consonantal י)

בַּיִת (construct בֵּית)

/ˈbayt/

[ˈbayt]

(construct [beyt])

(Jerusalem)

[ˈbt] (abs. and constr.)

(Samaria)

house

 

 

זַיִת (construct זֵית)

/ˈzayt/

[ˈzayt]

(construct [zeyt)

(Jerusalem)

[ˈzt] (abs. and constr.)

(Samaria)

 

 

 

צַיָד (construct צֵיד)