Edition 2.3

25 Julry 2014

E-BOOK
Biblical Hebrew Poetry and Word Play

Reconstructing the Original Oral[1], Aural[2] and Visual Experience

By David Steinberg

David.Steinberg@houseofdavid.ca

Home page http://www.houseofdavid.ca/

 

רבי טרפון ... היה אומרת "לא עליך המלאכה לגמור ולא אתה בן חורין

להבטל ממנה."

Rabbi Tarfon … used to say “You are not required to complete the work but you are not free to desist from it.”

Avot 2:21

 

 

Companion E-book - History of the Ancient and Modern Hebrew Language

To print use PDF file here

 

TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND LINGUISTIC SYMBOLS

Bibliography

 

A Few Introductory Words

I The Purpose of this Web Page

Box 1 - Sense and Nonsense from Robert Alter

Box 2 - Wordplay in the Hebrew Bible

Box 3 - The Functions of Puns

Box 4 - The Three Orthographic Elements in the Masoretic Text

II The Pronunciation of Hebrew Changed Substantially Between EBHP and the Time of the 8th-11th CE Masoretes Who Vocalized the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible

1. Biblical Skeleton, Changing Script and Orthography, Medieval Vowel Signs, Modern Pronunciation

2. The Problem of Music

3. Phases of Biblical Hebrew and its Antecedents (BHA) and the Development of the Biblical Hebrew Reading Tradition of the Tiberian Masoretes

Table 1 - Changes in the Noun from PH to TH - General Case

Table 2 - Changes in the Noun from PH to TH - Possible Special Cases

Table 3 - Change in Case Ending Vowel (ms. noun) with Attached Pronominal Suffix

Table 4 - Phase 3 *EBHP (*/EBHP/+ *[EBHP]) Imperfect, Jussive and Preterite

Table 5 - Phase 4 *LBHP (*/LBHP/ *[LBHP]) Imperfect, Jussive and Preterite

Table 6 - End of Phase 6 TH (/TH/+ *[TH]) Imperfect, Jussive and Preterite

 

III The Issue – The Oral-Aural Nature of Biblical Hebrew Poetry, and Some Kinds of Wordplay, Require the Closest Approximation to their Original Pronunciation for the Fullest Possible Appreciation and there are Practical Criteria for Reestablishing a Good Approximation of the Pre-Exilic Pronunciation

1. The Importance of Reconstructed EBHP

Box 5 - The Importance of Using Reconstructed EBHP/LBHP for the Appreciation of BH Poetry

2. The Basis for the Reconstruction of an Approximation to EBHP

Box 6 - Indirect Sources of Information Regarding the Pronunciation of BH

IV The Impact –Wordplay and Reconstructed EBHP

Box 7 - A Word on Homonymy

V Problems in Reconstruction of EBHP

Problem 1 – Where was the Stress Placed in Biblical Hebrew Words in EBHP?

Problem 2 – Problems Caused by the Contrast Between the Sound Structure of EBHP, Tiberian and Israeli Hebrew

Table 7 - Phonemes that were Orally Distinct in EBHP that have Merged in IH and Most Other Modern Pronunciations

EBHP and Tiberian Three Way Consonantal Opposition Reduced to Modern Two Way Opposition

Table 8 - Changes in Pronunciation Between EBHP, TH and BHIH most of which Alter the Syllabic Structure of Nouns

Problem 3 – Ancient Hebrew Orthography Provides Some, But Not Much, Guidance Regarding the Placement, and Nature of Vowels in EBHP

Table 9 - Ambiguity of Pre-exilic (JEH) Orthography

Table - Matres Lectionis in JEH

Problem 4 - What Letters Were Prone to Be Miscopied in the Course of Transmission of Hebrew Biblical Texts?

Box 8 - Scripts and Scripture

Table A - Potential for the Confusion of Letters In Hebrew Bible Text Transmission

Table B – Confusion of Letters in Paleo-Hebrew and Aramaic-Jewish Scripts

תֵּיקוּ  - Questions that Cannot be resolved at Present

A Note on Epigraphic Hebrew

Pronunciation of Numerals in EBHP

VI Reconstruction of EBHP

1. Aims in Reconstructing EBHP

Box 9 - Can Biblical Texts be Linguistically Dated?

2. Changes in the Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew Between EBHP and that Recorded in the Tiberian Masoretic Tradition (early 10th century CE)

Box 10 - Justification of Proposals for EBHP

3. Guidelines I Have Used in Reconstructing EBHP

Table 10 - Mono-syllabic Prepositions and Conjunctions Usually Linked to the Following Word in the MT by a maqqeph/makef (מקף)

Table 11 - Vowels of EBHP

4. Examples of the Reconstructed EBHP Vocalization of Biblical Hebrew Texts

a. Archaic or Archaizing Poetic Texts

i) Blessing of Jacob (Genesis 49:1-27)

ii) Song of the Sea (Exodus 15:1b-18)

iii) The Oracles of Balaam (poetic portions of Numbers 23:7-24:24)

iv) Ha’azinu (Deuteronomy 32:1-43)

v) Blessing of Moses (Deuteronomy 33)

vi) Song of Deborah (Judges 5)

b. Various Short Poems

c. Psalmic Poetry

i) II Samuel Chapt. 22 (Second version Psalm 18)

ii) Psalm 23

iii) Psalm 114

iv) Psalm 121

v) Psalm 122

vi) Psalm 130

d. Lamentations

i) Lament of David (II Samuel 1:19-27)

ii) Lamentations 3:1-15  ("Qinah meter")

e. Poetry of Song of Songs  - Song 2:1-17 (as generally in the Song, mainly in "Qinah meter")

f. Poetry of Job - Job 3:3-10

g. Prophetic Poetry

i) Jer. 1: 11-12; Jer. 1: 18-19; Jer. 19:14-15; Zeph. 3:1-2; Deut 15:1,4

ii) Amos 3:3-6; 3:8; 5:5-7; 5:10-12; 5:16b-17; 6:12; 8:7-10; 9:5-6; 9:13

h. Prose Texts

i) Genesis 2:18-24

ii) Genesis 4:1-3; Genesis 13:4-14; Joshua 7:1-3

iii) Siloam Inscription

 

To print this e-book use the files below -

File Name

Title

Pages

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb.pdf

Table of Contents and Bibliography

43

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_abb_dia.pdf

TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND LINGUISTIC SYMBOLS

19

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_1.pdf

Tables and Excurses

5

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_12.pdf

Introduction and Phases of Biblical Hebrew and its Antecedents and the Development of the Biblical Hebrew Reading Tradition of the Tiberian Masoretes

44

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_34.pdf

The Basis for the Reconstruction of the Pronunciation of BH and its relevance to Wordplay

24

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_5.pdf

Problems in Reconstruction of EBHP

10

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_6.pdf

Reconstruction of EBHP

31

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_Problem 5.pdf

Changes in Pronunciation Between EBHP, TH and the Biblical Text Pronounced as IH - most of which Alter the Syllabic Structure of Nouns

6

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_conf_let_pot.pdf

Table A - Potential for the Confusion of Letters In Hebrew Bible Text Transmission

8

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_conf_let.pdf

Table B – Confusion of Letters in Paleo-Hebrew and Aramaic-Jewish Scripts

7

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_bib_heb_EH.htm

Note on Epigraphic Hebrew

4

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_bib_heb_history.pdf

Linguistic Changes Affecting the Pronunciation of Biblical Hebrew 2000 B.C.E. - 850 C.E. According to Various Scholars

20

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_fingem.pdf

Words Ending in Doubled Consonants with the Loss of Case Endings

5

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_forms.pdf

Words Significantly Different in Pronunciation in EBHP

28

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_forms_hist.pdf

History of Some Word Forms in Hebrew

4

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_numerals.pdf

Pronunciation of Numerals in EBHP

5

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_tequ.pdf

Tequ - Questions that Cannot be Resolved at Present

164

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_anc_heb_biy_t1.pdf

Table 1 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes

13

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_anc_heb_biy_t2.pdf

Blessing of Jacob Table 2 - Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Orthographies

6

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_anc_heb_biy_t3.pdf

Blessing of Jacob Table 3 - Proto-Masoretic Orthography

7

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_shirym_t1.pdf

Song of the Sea Table 1 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes

8

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_shirym_t2.pdf

Song of the Sea Table 2 -  Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Orthographies

6

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_shirym_t3.pdf

Song of the Sea Table 3 - Proto-Masoretic Orthography

5

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_balaam_t1.pdf

Oracles of Balaam Table 1 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes

13

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_balaam_t2.pdf

Oracles of Balaam Table 2 - Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Orthographies

10

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_balaam_t3.pdf

Oracles of Balaam Table 3 - Proto-Masoretic Orthography

9

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_haazinu_t1.pdf

Ha’azinu Table 1 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files

12

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_haazinu_t2.pdf

Ha’azinu Table 2 -  Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Orthographies

10

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_haazinu_t3.pdf

Ha’azinu Table 3 - Proto-Masoretic Orthography

9

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_bim_t1.pdf

Blessing of Moses Table 1 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes

12

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_bim_t2.pdf

Blessing of Moses Table 2 - Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Orthographies

10

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_bim_t3.pdf

Blessing of Moses Table 3 - Proto-Masoretic Orthography

10

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_shirdb_t1.pdf

Song of Deborah Table 1 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes

14

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_shirdb_t2.pdf

Song of Deborah Table 2 - Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Orthographies

10

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_shirdb_t3.pdf

Song of Deborah Table 3 - Proto-Masoretic Orthography

9

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_shirdb_t4.pdf

Song of Deborah Table 4 - Metrics

3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_Short_Poems_t1.pdf

Short Poems Table 1 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes

37

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_Short_Poems_t2.pdf

Short Poems Table 2 - Reconstructed Pre-Exilic Orthographies

42

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_Short_Poems_t3.pdf

Short Poems Table 3 - Proto-Masoretic Orthography

40

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_2sam22_tab.pdf

II Samuel Chapt. 22 (= Psalm 18) - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with SoundFiles

11

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_Ps_18_tab.pdf

Psalm 18 vss. 26b-48 in Reconstructed Preexilic, Secunda and Tiberian Hebrew

13

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_2sam22_par_ps18.pdf

Masoretic Text of II Samuel Chapt. 22 and Psalm 18 in Parallel Columns

5

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_ps23_tab.pdf

Psalm 23 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files

3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_ps114_tab.pdf

Psalm 114 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files

4

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_ps121_tab.pdf

Psalm 121 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files

3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_ps122_tab.pdf

Psalm 122 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files

3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_ps130_tab.pdf

Psalm 130 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files

3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_qin_da_tab.pdf

Lament of David (II Samuel 1:19-27) - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files

4

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_eicha_tab.pdf

Lamentations 3:1-15 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files

4

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_song_tab.pdf

Poetry of Song of Songs - Song 2:1-17 - Reconstructed LBHP Vocalization with Sound Files

6

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_job_tab.pdf

Poetry of Job - Job 3:3-10 - Reconstructed LBHP Vocalization with Sound Files

4

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_har.pdf

Various Prophets - Reconstructed First Temple Vocalization and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes Based on Harris

4

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_har_ds.pdf

Various Prophets - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes by David Steinberg

5

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_amos_stuart.pdf

Amos - Reconstructed First Temple Vocalization and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes Based on Stuart

6

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_amos_ds.pdf

Amos - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes by David Steinberg

9

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_gen2_beyer.pdf

Genesis 2:18-24 - Reconstructed First Temple Vocalization and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes Based on Beyer

3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_gen2_ds.pdf

Genesis 2:18-24 - Reconstructed Late First Temple Orthography and Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes by David Steinberg

5

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_gen_josh.pdf

Vocalization of: Genesis 4:1-3; Genesis 13:4-14; Joshua 7:1-3 - Reconstructed First Temple Vocalization (EBHP) with Sound Files and Transposition into Tiberian Graphemes

7

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_siloam_text.pdf

Text of the Siloam Inscription

1

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_siloam_beyer.pdf

Vocalization of the Siloam Inscription Based on Beyer

3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/anc_heb_siloam_ds.pdf

Vocalization of the Siloam Inscription by David Steinberg with Sound Files

4

Total pages

 

832

 

Accompanying sound files -

 

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1s236_ebhp.mp3

 

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1s236_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1s236_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam12_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam12_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam12_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam17_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam17_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam17_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam67_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam67_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/1sam67_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam1_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam1_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam1_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_2_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_5_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_7_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_14_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_17_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_21_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_26_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_29_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_32_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_36_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_40_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_44_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_47_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam22_50_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam2413_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam2413_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2sam2413_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/2739_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am33_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am38_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am55_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am88_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am95_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am510_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am516_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am612_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/am913_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_15_1_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_15_4_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_1_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_4_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_7_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_10_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_13_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_15_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_19_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_28_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_32_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_34_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_36_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_39_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_32_43_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_1_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_2_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_6_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_7_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_8_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_12_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_13_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_18_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_20_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_22_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_23_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_24_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_26_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/deut_33_28_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ex15_1_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ex15_4_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ex15_11_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ex15_13_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ex3218_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ez5_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ez5_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ez5_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g11_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g11_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g46_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g96_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g122_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g127_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g223_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g225_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g314_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g315_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g316_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g317_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g319_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g822_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g925_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g1419_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g1610_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g2460_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g2523_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g2728_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g2739_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g3510_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g4815_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/g4820_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_2_18_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_2_21_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_2_23_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_2_24_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_4_1_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_13_4_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_13_8_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_13_14_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_1_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_3_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_5_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_8_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_11_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_13_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_14_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_16_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_18_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_19_ebhp

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_20_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_21_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_22_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_23_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/gen_49_27_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i295_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i295_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i295_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i346_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i346_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i346_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i2417_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i2417_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/i2417_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is1422_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is1422_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is1422_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is2218_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is2218_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is2218_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is2229_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is2229_th.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is2229_thcst.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/is2416_ebhp.mp3

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http://www.houseofdavid.ca/Qof.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/Sadi.mp3

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http://www.houseofdavid.ca/shod_th.mp3

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http://www.houseofdavid.ca/Siloam_ebhp.mp3

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http://www.houseofdavid.ca/song44_th.mp3

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http://www.houseofdavid.ca/song_2_1_ebhp.mp3

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http://www.houseofdavid.ca/Tet.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/zeph_3_1_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_26b_ebhp.mp3

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http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_50_ebhp.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_26b_Sec.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_29_Sec.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_32_Sec.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_36_Sec.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_40_Sec.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_44_Sec.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_50_Sec.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_26b_TH.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_29_TH.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_32_TH.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_36_TH.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_40_TH.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_44_TH.mp3

http://www.houseofdavid.ca/ps_18_50_TH.mp3

 


Bibliography

Reconstructed Biblical Hebrew Vocalization of Wolfgang Richter

Wolfgang Richter and his team have produced a remarkable series of publications that, among other things, vocalized the entire Hebrew Bible[3], Ben Sira and the corpus of Epigraphic Hebrew. The vocalization system used is explained in Richter 1983 and is briefly summarized in the introduction to the Genesis volume of Biblia hebraica transcripta (BHT). It should be noted that Richter's aim was to produce an "othographiebezogene morphologische Transkription" which perhaps might be translated as "morphological transcription within constraints imposed by the orthography of the MT". Although Richter did not intend to recreate EBHP, his transcriptions are, in practice, fairly close to what we would understand EBHP to have been. Where his transcriptions depart from the probable reality of EBHP, this is usually due to the constraints imposed on his method by the MT. This can be seen by comparing his transcriptions of the biblical texts in BHT with those of JEH, with their earlier orthography, in Althebräische Inschriften transkribiert (AIT).

Those wishing to make use of Richter's transcriptions to develop a close approximation to EBHP should note the following:

(1) The transcriptions do not indicate word stress;

(2) The transcriptions do not indicate tonic lengthening of originally short vowels in closed stressed syllables in nouns in the absolute case

(3) Because the gemination is due to a semantic redundancy rule (i.e. it is a necessary/regular part of a grammatical feature) the transcriptions systematically omit the automatic gemination following:

(a) the waw consecutive of the prefix conjugation;

(b) the article ha- ה;

(c) the relative ša-  .

(4) 3ms. pronominal suffix - AHT gives, in deference to MT orthography, ō while AIT usually gives ahu (eg. p. 6 Lak2:2 cabd=hu to be vocalized [cabˈdahu]). In EBHP it might have been /ahu/, /ôːh/ or /ô/.

(5) The transliteration usually leaves out the short vowels ("Bindervokal")[4] before 2ms. and 2pl. pronominal prefixes on nouns. Thus 'your return' (Gen. 4:19) is transcribed šūb=ka reflecting a pronunciation of ūˈbika/ or ūˈbaka/.

(6) The transcriptions ignore the certain polyphonic nature in EBHP of the letters ח and ע but not that of ש.

(7) Both BHT and AIT transliterate the qal ms. imp. as qtul (eg. AIT ktub p. 13, Arad 1:2; ḥtum p. 16, Arad 17:2). However (inconsistently?), in deference to the MT The qal inf. constr. is vocalized qtul in BHT (eg. Judges 5:2a) but (the earlier form) qutul in AIT (eg. p. 7 Lak3:2 šulu=ka to be vocalized [šuluˈika] or [šuluˈaka]). Similarly, the ubiquitous opening for quotations TH לֵאמׂר is vocalized lē(ʾ)mur in BHT but liʾumur in AIT (eg. p. 7 Lak3:6).

Cf. Infinitive Construct and Masculine Singular Imperative of Qal C1VxC2VxC3 > C1C2VxC3 or C1VxC2C3.

(8) The transcriptions reflect two developments in pre-exilic Hebrew that most experts consider took place in the post exilic period:

(a) the reduction of geminated final consonants ; and,

(b) the elision of syllable-or word-final alephs;

(9) The transcriptions assume unstressed heterogeneous diphthong contraction that many experts consider took place in the post-exilic period.

 

It should also be noted, that Richter’s vowel transcriptions are exclusively phonemic giving no indication of probable short vowel allophones in [EBHP].

 

(Note the detailed bibliography at
http://www.dailyhebrew.com/resources/bibliography/hebrew-ugaritic-bibliography/ )

 

Abd-El-Jawad, Hassan R., "Cross-Dialectal Variation in Arabic: Competing Prestigious Forms", Language in Society, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Sep., 1987), pp. 359-367

Abu-Haidar, Farida. "Are Iraqi Women More Prestige Conscious than Men? Sex Differentiation in Baghdadi Arabic", Language in Society, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Dec., 1989), pp. 471-481.
Adams, William James Jr., "An Investigation into the Diachronic Distribution of Morphological Forms and Semantic Features of Extra-Biblical Hebrew Sources", PhD dissertation, University of Utah, 1987.

Aejmelaeus, Anneli, "What Can We Know about the Hebrew "Vorlage" of the Septuagint?" , Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 99:1 (1987) p.58

Aharoni, Yohanan, Arad Inscriptions, Jerusalem, The Israel Exploration Society, 1981.

Ahituv, Sh., Handbook of Hebrew Inscriptions, Jerusalem: Bialik Insitute, 1992

Al Ani, S.H., Arabic Phonology: An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation, The Hague: Mouton, 1970.

Alter, Robert, The Art of Biblical Poetry , Basic Books, 1987

Andersen, Francis, I., The Hebrew Verbless Clause in the Pentateuch, Abingdon, 1970.

- The sentence in biblical Hebrew, The Hague, Mouton, 1974

- Spelling in the Hebrew Bible: biblica et orientalia 41, Rome: Biblical Institute, 1986.

- Review of Barr 1989 in Critical Review of Books in Religion for 1991. AAR/SBL.

- "Orthography in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions", ANES 36 (1999), pp. 5-35.

Avi-Yonah, Michael. The Jews of Palestine: A Political History from Bar Kokhba War to Arab Conquest. New York: Schocken, 1976.

Bakir, Murtadha. " Sex Differences in the Approximation to Standard Arabic: A Case Study", Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Spring, 1986), pp. 3-9.

Bange, A Study of the Use of Vowel-Letters in Alphabetic Consonental Writing, Munich, UNI-Druck, 1971.

Bar Asher, M.. "The Different Traditions of Mishnaic Hebrew," in Working with No Data: Semitic and Egyptian Studies Presented to Thomas 0. Lambdin, ed. D. Golomb (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987), 1-38

- "Mishnaic Hebrew: An Introductory Survey", Hebrew Studies 40 [1999]: 115.51.

Bar Efrat, Sh.. Narrative Art in the Bible, T. & T. Clark, 2004.

Barkay, G., M. J. Lundberg, A. G. Vaughn, B. Zukerman, K. Zukerman. "Challenges of Ketef Hinnom: Using Advanced Technologies to Reclaim the Earliest Biblical Texts and their ContextÈ, Near Eastern Archaeology 66:4 (2003).

Barkay, G., A. G. Vaughn, M. J. Lundberg, B. Zuckerman, "The Amulets from Ketef Hinnom: A New Edition and Evaluation," BASOR 334 (2004): 41-71.

Barr, James, "St Jerome and the Sounds of Hebrew", JSS vol. 12, no. 1, Spring 1967, pp. 1-36.

- Comparative Philology and the Text of the Old Testament, Oxford 1968

- The Variable Spellings of the Hebrew Bible, OUP, 1989

Barstad, Hans M.. "After the "Myth of the Empty Land": Major Challenges in the Study of Neo-Babylonian Judah" in Judah and the Judeans in the neo-Babylonian period edited by Oded Lipschitz and Blenkinsopp, Eisenbrauns, 2003, pp. 3-20.
Bauer, Hans and Pontus Leander, Historische Grammatik der hebräischen Sprache des Alten Testamentes, 1928; reprinted by  G. Olms, Hildesheim, 1962.

Bendavid, Abba, "Minnayin ha-haluqa litnu'ot gadolot uqtanot?", Leshonenu 22 (1957-8) 7-35, 110-36.

- Biblical Hebrew and Mishnaic Hebrew  (in Hebrew), Dvir 1967 (2 volumes)

Ben-Hayyim, Z., Studies in the Traditions of the Hebrew language, Instituto Arias Montano, Madrid-Barcelona, 1954

- A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2000

Bennett, Patrick R., Comparative Semitic linguistics : a manual, Eisenbrauns,, 1998.

Bergey, R. L.. "The Book of Esther: Its Place in the Linguis tic Milieu of Post-exilic Hebrew" (Ph.D. diss., Dropsie College, 1983)

- "Late Linguistic Features in Esther," JQR 75 (1985): 66-78.

- "Post-exilic Linguistic Development in Esther: A Diachronic Approach," JETS 31 (1988) 161-168.

Bergsträsser G., Hebräische Grammatik, (2 vols.), Leipzig, 1918-29

- Introduction to the Semitic Languages, translated (German 1928) with Notes and Bibliography and an Appendix on the Scripts by Peter T. Daniels, Eisenbrauns, 1983.

Beyer, Klaus, Althebräische Grammatik : Laut- und Formenlehre, Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1969.

- Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer. Ergänzungsband : samt den Inschriften aus Palästina, dem Testament Levis aus der Kairoer Genisa, der Fastenrolle und den alten talmudischen Zitaten : aramaistische Einleitung, Text, Übersetzung, Deutung, Grammatik/Wörterbuch, deutsch-aramäische Wortliste, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1998.