Edition 2.0

12 December 2011

 

Biblical Hebrew Poetry and Word Play

Reconstructing the Original Oral, Aural and Visual Experience

By David Steinberg

David.Steinberg@houseofdavid.ca

Home page http://www.houseofdavid.ca/

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To print use PDF file here

 

III The Issue The Oral-Aural Nature of Biblical Hebrew Poetry, and Some Kinds of Wordplay, Require the Closest Approximation to their Original Pronunciation for the Fullest Possible Appreciation and there are Practical Criteria for Reestablishing a Good Approximation of the Pre-Exilic Pronunciation

1. The Importance of Reconstructed EBHP

2. The Basis for the Reconstruction of an Approximation to EBHP

 

IV The Impact Wordplay and Reconstructed EBHP

 

III The Issue The Oral-Aural Nature of Biblical Hebrew Poetry, and Some Kinds of Wordplay, Require the Closest Approximation to their Original Pronunciation for the Fullest Possible Appreciation and there are Practical Criteria for Reestablishing a Good Approximation of the Pre-Exilic Pronunciation

 


1. The Importance of Reconstructed EBHP

 

Box 5

Importance of Using Reconstructed EBHP/LBHP for Appreciation of BH Poetry

Essential to metrical analysis in (biblical) Hebrew is some knowledge of the pronunciation of the language at the time of the composition of a given poem. Since Hebrew orthography (did not) fully indicate(d) vowels it is obvious that a certain degree of subjectivity will be present in reconstructing (this) spoken language(s). It is nevertheless mandatory that such an attempt be made as a prelude to metrical analysis in spite of the pitfalls involved[1]. To do otherwise would be to ignore the manifestly oral-aural nature of the poetry. Phonetic features are inherently determinative in the composition, memorization, and vocal reproduction of our poems.

The general characteristics of (the) vowels (of biblical Hebrew poetry can) be understood.

Stuart p. 24iii

 
2. The Basis for the Reconstruction of an Approximation to EBHP

Box 6

Indirect Sources of Information Regarding the Pronunciation of BH

 Naturally we only have indirect sources of information about the pronunciation of Classical Hebrew. Among the more important of them are:

1. The Jewish traditions.

2. The pronunciation of living Semitic languages, especially Arabic, Ethiopic and Aramaic.

3. Internal considerations.

4. Transliteration and transcription of Hebrew words and names, especially in Greek and Latin, e.g. the second column of the Hexapla, Jerome, and the Septuagint; there are some inherent difficulties arising from the nature of the phonemic inventories of these classical, non-Semitic languages.

5. Transliterations in Akkadian, Ugaritic, and Egyptian, though here again similar problems arise.

 Joϋon-Muraoka 1991 5ga

See Reconstruction of EBHP below.

 

 


IV The Impact Wordplay and Reconstructed EBHP

 Box 7

A Word on Homonymy

In my view homonymy is only a useful concept when applied synchronically i.e. at a given stage and dialect in a languages development. The terminology relating to homonyms is unfortunately confused. For the sake of this paper I will use the following definitions:

Full Homonym words that are spelled and pronounced identically but have distinctly different meanings at a given stage and dialect in a languages history e.g. (drill) bit and bit (of toast);

Homograph words that are spelled identically but have distinctly different pronunciations and meanings at a given stage and dialect in a languages history e.g. read (present tense) and read (past tense);

Homophone words that are pronounced identically but have distinctly different spellings and meanings at a given stage and dialect in a languages history e.g. read (past tense) and red.

It is not unusual for sound shifts to lead to the development of homophones from words which were not so in earlier stages in the language. Thus the modern English words knight (Anglo-Saxon cniht ) and night (Anglo-Saxon niht ) became homophones when the initial k in knight ceased to be pronounced.

 

I should note that reading a biblical text with a reconstructed pre-exilic will reveal or strengthen some similarities between words and reveal that others, found due to either Tiberian graphemes or due to modern pronunciations imposed on Tiberian graphemes, are unlikely to have existed in the minds of the authors or original audiences.

 a) Original Homograph Becomes Full Homonym

i) Homophones formed Due to sound Shift >

Herzberg discusses a number of cases of possible and probable polysemy (multiple meanings) i.e. where either ḥrb or rb is intended as the primary meaning while the reader or listener is meant to hear echoes of the other roots meaning[2]. A key point to bear in mind, is that from the earliest times both and have been denoted by ח in Hebrew and, sometime after the third century BCE /ḫ/ [x] shifted to /ḥ/ [ħ] in pronunciation thus merging with the already existing /ḥ/ [ħ]. Thus until at least the late third century BCE the polysemy would have been apparent only to the reader, not to the listener. After the sound shift >, it would have been apparent to both the reader and the listener.

In Ugaritic ḥrb sword while rb dry. Both roots are well attested in Hebrew i.e. (MT followed by */EBHP/): חֶרֶב ḥarb/ sword; חָרֵב /aˈreːb/ dry. In some forms they overlap e.g. ḥrb in the qal to massacre and in the niphal to fight one another while rb in the qal to dry up and in the niphal to be laid waste

ii) Homophones formed Due to sound Shift ġ > c

Both c and ġ were denoted by ע in Hebrew and, sometime after the third century BCE /ġ/ [ɣ] shifted to /c/ [ʕ] in pronunciation thus merging with the already existing /c/ [ʕ]. Herzberg discusses the roots n cm goodness and nġm melody, music and shows probable polysemy[3].

 

b) Examples where Reconstructing the Probable Original Pronunciation Resulting in More Convincing Wordplay

For the sake of convenience, I have reviewed the examples of wordplay presented in the book Puns and Pundits: Word Play in the Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Literature edited by Scott B. Noegel (Noegel 2000) and have selected a number of cases that, in my opinion, would be strengthened by substituting a reconstruction of the original pronunciation.

In Puns and Pundits the MT is transliterated using a form of the conventional scholarly transcription of TH (THCST) generally of the THSBL variety. Elsewhere I have outlined its unsuitability for this, or most other scholarly uses. Nb. When accepting Tiberian vocalization, one has to assume that the hearer will respond to similar sounds without regard to their historical origin. 

From the paper "Wordplay in Biblical Hebrew: an Eclectic Collection" by Gary A. Rendsburg[4] :

1.      Gen 1:1 (p. 137) Num. 16:30 (pp. 140-1)

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א Gen 1:1

In the beginning God created

בְּרִיאָ֞ה יִבְרָ֣א Num. 16:30

(God a) creation creates

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

bĕrʾt br - bĕrʾāh yibrāʾ

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

bәrˈʃit bɐˈrɐ - bәri.ˈrɐ yivˈrɐ

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

bәrˈit bˈr - bәriˈʾ yibˈr

 

*[TH]

bәrːˈiːθ bɔːˈrɔː - bәriːˈʔɔː yivˈrɔː

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+[5]

brˈῑt baˈraʾ - brῑˈʾ yibˈraʾ

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP][6]

bɐɾːʃiːt bɐˈɾɐʔ - bɐɾiːˈʔɐː yɪbˈɾɐʔ

MP3

sound file

 


2.      P. 138 Song 4:4 - example of alliteration

   

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

בָּנ֖וּי לְתַלְפִּיֹּ֑ות אֶ֤לֶף הַמָּגֵן֙ תָּל֣וּי עָלָ֔יו

built in courses; on it hang a thousand bucklers

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

lĕtalpiyyt ... elep ... tāly

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

lәtɐlpiyˈyot ... ˈelef ... tɐˈlu.i

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

lәtalpiyˈyot - ˈɛp - tˈluy

 

*[TH]

lәtɐlpiyˈyoːθ - ˈʔɛːlɛf - tɔːˈluːy

MP3

sound file

Phonetic transcription of reconstructed post-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

ltalpiːˈyōt - ˈalp - taˈlūy

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

tɐlpiːˈyoːt - ˈʔɐlp - tɐˈlūy

MP3

sound file

 

Comment - The point is stronger with the *EBHP in which tɐlpiːˈyoːt and tɐˈlūy have 'tɐl' in common, while tɐlpiːˈyoːt and ˈʔɐlp have 'ɐlp' in common


3.      P. 141 in 1 Sam 2:36, where the rare verb s-p-ḥ is used in the form סְפָחֵנִי sәfḥēnῑ "attach me." The five letters of this name include both the four letters of ḥopnῑ "Hophni" and the five letters of pinḥs "Phineas," the names of the two sons of Eli.

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

סְפָחֵ֥נִי - חָפְנִי֙ - פִּ֣נְחָ֔ס

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

sĕpāēn - ḥofn - pnās

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

sәfɐˈxni - xofˈni - pinˈxɐs

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

sәpˈḥẹni - ḥǫpˈni - pinˈḥs

 

*[TH]

sәfɔːˈħẹːniː - ħɔfˈniː - pinˈħɔːs

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

spuˈḥiniː or spuˈḥiniː - ḥupˈniː - piːnˈs

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

spˈħɪniː or spˈħɪniː - ħpˈniː - piːnˈħs

MP3

sound file

 

Comment - A rather cerebral wordplay which is weakened by the fact that the פ /p/, in Tiberian Hebrew is pronounced as [p] in [pinˈɔːs] and as [f]׀in [ḥɔfˈniː] and [sәfɔːˈḥẹːniː] . However, in *EBHP it would always be pronounced p.

 

4.      P. 149 Genesis 49:6

בְּסֹדָם אַל־תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי בִּקְהָלָם אַל־תֵּחַד כְּבֹדִי Let my soul not enter/desire their council

P. 149 Job 3:6

אַל־יִחַדְּ בִּימֵי שָׁנָה- Let it not be united with/rejoice in the days of the year

Comment - The polysemy of reading תֵּחַד and יִחַדְּ as both from the root y-ḥ-d = unite with and from the root -d-y = rejoice would have worked as a visual level before the sound shift ḫ > after 300 BCE and would have also worked orally after that sound shift.

 

From the paper "Wordplay and Puns as a Rhetorical Device in the Book of Samuel" by Moshe Garsiel[7]

1.      Pp. 182-183. The author explores the linking effect of the phoneme /p/ in 1 Samuel chapters 1 and 2. He draws on the words:

פְּנִנָּה לִפְנִנָּה; וּפִנְחָס; פְּנֵי- לִפְנֵי

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

פְּנִנָּה לִפְנִנָּה; וּפִנְחָס; פְּנֵי- לִפְנֵי

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

pĕninnāh - lipninnāh - pnās - pĕnē - lipnē

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

pәniˈ - lifniˈ - ufinˈḥɐs - ˈpn - lifˈn

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

pәninˈn - lipninˈn - upinˈḥs - pˌn - lipˌn

 

*[TH]

pәninˈnɔː - lifninˈnɔː - uːfinˈɔːs - pәˌnː - lifˌnː

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

pninˈn - lpninˈn - wpiːnˈaːs - pˌnay - lpˌnay

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

pɐnɪnˈː - lɐpɐnɪnˈː - wɐpiːnˈaːs - ˌnɐy - lɐpɐˌnɐy

MP3

sound file

Comment - The *EBHP differs from the Tiberian pronunciation in that all the vowels are identical in the first syllable. The recognition that in pre-exilic times פ was always realized as ׀p ׀is necessary to make the wordplay work on the oral level.

2.      P. 185 re. 1 Samuel 1:18 (1:17 in the Hebrew) and 1:20

וֵאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יִתֵּן אֶת־שֵׁלָתֵךְ אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתְּ מֵעִמֹּו

"... may the God of Israel grant you (ēlātēk)

what you have asked (āalt) of him."

 וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמֹו שְׁמוּאֵל כִּי מֵיְהוָה שְׁאִלְתִּיו

"She named him Samuel, meaning, "I asked (ĕiltw) the Lord for him."

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

שְׁאִלְתִּיו - שָׁאַלְתְּ - שֵׁלָתֵךְ

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

ēlātēk - āalt - ĕiltw

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ʃẹlɐˈtx - ʃɐˈɐlt - ʃә.ilˈtiv

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

ẹlˈtk - ˈalt - ilˈtiw

 

*[TH]

ʃːlɔːˈθːx - ʃɔːˈʔɐlt - ʃәʔilˈtiːw

MP3

sound file

Phonetic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

1. standard

eːlaˈteːk - aˈalt - ailˈtiːw

2. possible archaic/dialect

/eːlaˈtikiˑ[8] - aˈaltiˑ [9] - ilˈtiːhuˑ

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

1. standard

ʃẹːlɐˈtːk - ʃɐˈʔɐlt - ʃɐʔɪlˈtiːw

2. possible archaic/dialect

/ʃːlɐˈtɪkiˑ - ʃɐˈʔɐltiˑ - ʃɐʔɪlˈtiːhuˑ

MP3

sound file

Comment The possible archaic/dialect reconstruction differs from the Tiberian in that: (1) All 3 words are penultimately stressed; (2) All words end in a vowel; (3) All words have the long vowel ῑ/ iː either stressed or immediately post-stress.

3.      p. 198 In 2 Samuel 24:13

דֶּבֶר בְּאַרְצֶךָ עַתָּה דַּע וּרְאֵה מָה־אָשִׁיב שֹׁלְחִי דָּבָר Or shall there be three days' pestilence in your land? Now consider, and decide what answer I shall return to the one who sent me."

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

דָּבָר דֶּבֶר

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

deber - dābār

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ˈvɛr - ˈvɐr

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

ˈbɛr - dˈbr

 

*[TH]

ˈːvɛr - dɔːˈvɔːr

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

ˈdabr - daˈbr

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ˈdɐbr - dɐˈbr

MP3

sound file

 

 Comment - The *EBHP differs from the Tiberian pronunciation in that: (1) All vowels are short or long a; (2) The first word has a single syllable and the second has two. This may serve to heighten the tension.


p. 200 2 Samuel 1

נָפְלוּ נִפְלְאַתָה נָפְלוּ the author says that this creates a contrast between a wonderful past and a dark present.

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

נָפְלוּ נִפְלְאַתָה נָפְלוּ

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

nāpl - niplĕatāh - nāpl

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

fˈlu - niflәɐ - fˈlu

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

npәˈlu - nipˈat - npәˈlu

 

*[TH]

nɔːˈluː - niflәˈʔɐːθɔː - nɔːˈluː

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

1. standard

naˈplū - niplˈat - naˈp

2. possible archaic/dialect

naˈplū - naplat - naˈp

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

1. standard

ˈluˑ - nɪplɐˈʔɐˑ - ˈluˑ

2. possible archaic/dialect

ˈluˑ - nɐplɐˈʔɐˑ - ˈluˑ

MP3

sound file

 Comment -

1. By using the hybrid III-h/III- form נִפְלְאַתָה, rather than the expected נִפְלָאת (Ps. 118:23) or נִפְלַאת (Deut. 30:11) the poem is saying at once your love was wonderful and you (Jonathan) were wonderful.

2. The [EBHP]ˈluˑ - nɪplɐˈʔɐˑ/plɐˈʔɐ - ˈluˑ with stressed pre-tonal syllables pa- la- pa is more striking than the Tiberian nɔːˈluː - niflәˈaːθɔː - nɔːˈluː . 

3. The possible archaic/dialect naplat results in initial syllables na-na-na.

 

ii)                  From the paper "Between Science and Magic: The Function and Roots of paronomasia in the Prophetic Books of the Hebrew Bible" by Stefan Schorch[10]

 

1.      p. 201 1 Samuel 6:7

וְעַתָּה קְחוּ וַעֲשׂוּ עֲגָלָה חֲדָשָׁה אֶחָת וּשְׁתֵּי פָרוֹת עָלוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָלָה עֲלֵיהֶם עֹל

וַאֲסַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַפָּרֹות בָּעֲגָלָה וַהֲשֵׁיבֹתֶם בְּנֵיהֶם מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם הַבָּיְתָה׃

Therefore, get a new cart (căgālāh) ready and two milch (cālt) cows that have not borne a yoke (cālā călhem cōl), harness (cōl) the cows to the cart (căgālāh), but take back indoors the calves that follow them...

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

עֹל-עֲלֵיהֶם-עָלָה-עָלוֹת- עֲגָלָה

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

căgālāh - cālt - cālā - călhem - cōl - căgālāh

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ɐgɐˈlɐ - ɐˈlot - ɐˈlɐ - ɐlˈhɛm - ˈol - ɐgɐˈlɐ

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

căgˈl - cˈlot - cˈl - clẹˈhɛm - ˈcol - căgˈl

 

*[TH]

ʕăɣɔːˈlɔː - ʕɔːˈloːθ - ʕɔːˈlɔː - ʕălẹːˈːm - ˈʕoːl - ʕăɣɔːˈlɔː

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

cgaˈl - cāˈlt - caˈl calayˈhim ˈcull cgaˈl

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ʕɐgɐˈlɐː - ʕaːˈlt - ʕɐˈlɐː ʕɐlayˈhim ˈʕʊll ʕɐgɐˈlɐː

MP3

sound file

 


2.      p. 208 - Is. 22:18

צָנֹוף יִצְנָפְךָ צְנֵפָה whirl you round and round

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

צָנֹוף יִצְנָפְךָ צְנֵפָה

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

ṣānf yiṣnopkā ĕnēpāh

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

tsɐˈnof yitsnofˈ tsәnẹˈ

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

ˈnop yiṣnǫpˈk ṣnẹˈp

 

*[TH]

ɔːˈnoːf yinɔfˈxɔː әnẹːˈfɔː

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

ṣaˈp yaṣnuˈpka(ː) (or yiṣnuˈpịka(ː) ) ṣniˈp

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ɐˈnoːpnʊˈpɪˑ (or yɪsˁnʊˈpɪˑ ) ɐnɪˈpɐː

MP3

sound file

 

Comment - *[EBHP] ɐˈnoːpnʊˈpɪˑ ɐnɪˈpɐː with the initial syllable ɐˈ joining the first and last words and the final vowel joining the second and third words is superior to the [TH] ɔːˈnoːf yinɔfˈxɔː әnẹːˈfɔː.


3.       p. 208 - Is. 22:29

אֶרֶץ אֶרֶץ אָרֶץ land, land, land

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

אֶרֶץ אֶרֶץ אָרֶץ

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

ʾereṣ ʾereṣ ʾāreṣ

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ˈɛɾɛts ˈɛɾɛts ˈɐɾɛts

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

ˈʾɛrɛṣ ˈʾɛrɛṣ ˈʾrɛṣ

 

*[TH]

ˈʔɛːɾɛ ˈʔɛːɾɛ ˈʔɔːɾɛ

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

ˈarṣ ˈʾarṣ ˈʾarṣ

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ˈʔɐɾ ˈʔɐɾ ˈʔɐɾ

MP3

sound file

 

Comment - The *EBHP differs from the TH in that: (1) All vowels are identical; (2) The words are mono-syllabic.


4.      p.209 - Is. 14:22

שֵׁם וּשְׁאָר וְנִין וָנֶכֶד name and remnant, offspring and posterity

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

שֵׁם וּשְׁאָר וְנִין וָנֶכֶד

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

ēm ĕār wĕnn wāneked

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ˈʃẹm uʃәˈɐrˈninˈnexed

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

ˈẹm uˈr wˈnin wˈkɛd

 

*[TH]

ˈʃːm uːʃәˈʔɔːrˈniːn wɔːˈː

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

ˈeːm wiˈaːr wˈnn wˈnikd

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ˈʃːm wɐʃɪˈʔɐːrˈnnˈnɪkd

MP3

sound file

 


5.      p.209 - Is. 24:6

אָלָה אָכְלָה אֶרֶץ a curse devours (the) earth

 

 Masoretic Text (MT)

 

אָלָה אָכְלָה אֶרֶץ

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

ʾālā ʾākәlāh ʾereṣ

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ɐˈ ɐxˈ ˈɛɾɛts

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

ʾˈl ʾkˈl ˈʾɛrɛṣ

 

*[TH]

ʔɔːˈlɔː ʔɔːˈlɔː ˈʔɛːɾɛ

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

ʾaˈl ʾaˈkl ˈʾarṣ

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ʔɐˈlɐː ʔɐˈkɐˑ ˈʔɐɾ

MP3

sound file

 

Comment - The *EBHP differs from the Tiberian in that: each word begins with the syllable ʾa and all vowels are short or long a.

 


6.      p. 210 - Jer. 48:3; Isa. 51:19, 59:7, 60:18

שֹׁד וָשֶׁבֶר Desolation and destruction

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

שֹׁד וָשֶׁבֶר

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

ōd wāeber - haōd whaeber

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ˈʃod ˈʃɛɾ - ˈʃod vɐhɐˈʃɛɾ

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

ˈod wˈɛbɛr - haˈod whaˈɛbɛr

 

*[TH]

ˈʃoː wɔːˈʃɛːɾ - hɐʃˈʃoː wɔːhɐʃˈʃɛːɾ

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

ˈudd waˈabr - haˈudd wahaˈabr

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ˈʃʊddˈʃɐ - hɐʃˈʃʊdd wɐhɐʃˈʃɐ

MP3

sound file


7.      p. 210 Ezek. 5:17; 28:23; 38:22

וְדֶבֶר וָדָם plague and blood

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

 

וְדֶבֶר וָדָם

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

wĕdeber wādām

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ˈdɛɾ ˈdɐm

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

wĕˈdɛbɛr wˈdm

 

*[TH]

ˈɛːɾ wɔːˈɔːm

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

waˈdabr waˈdaːm

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ˈdɐˈdɐːm

MP3

sound file

 

Comment - *EBHP differs from TH in that: (1) all the vowels are long or short a; (2) each word of two syllables beginning with the syllable wa; (3) each word is stressed on the final syllable.


8.      p. 210 Isa. 24:17

פַּחַד וָפַחַת וָפָח Terror, and (the) pit, and (the) snare

 Masoretic Text (MT)

 

פַּחַד וָפַחַת וָפָח

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

paḥad wāpaḥat wāpā

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ˈxɐd vɐˈxɐt vɐˈx

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

ˈpaḥad wˈpaḥat wˈp

 

*[TH]

ˈpɐːħɐ wɔːˈfɐːħɐθ wɔːˈfɔːħ

MP3

sound file

Phonemic transcription of reconstructed pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*/EBHP/+

ˈpaḥd or ˈpad waˈpaḥt waˈpaḫḫ

 

Possible phonetic reconstruction of pre-exilic BH pronunciation

*[EBHP]

ˈpɐħdˈpɐħt ˈpɐxx OR

ˈpɐxdˈpɐħt ˈpɐxx

MP3

sound file

Comment - The *EBHP differs from the TH in that: (1) all the vowels are identical; (2) each noun is of one syllable; (3) both and are represented.

 


9.      p. 210 Isa. 29:5

לְפֶתַע פִּתְאֹם suddenly

 Masoretic Text (MT)

 

לְפֶתַע פִּתְאֹם

 

Transcriptions and reconstructions of MT

THSBL

lĕpetac pitʾōm

 

[THCSP IS-ENG]

ˈfɛ pitˈom

MP3

sound file

/TH/+

lĕˈpɛtac pitˈʾom

 

*[TH]

lә<